Humans also influence the carbon cycle indirectly by changing the terrestrial and oceanic biosphere  . Over the past several centuries, direct and indirect human-caused land use and land cover change (LUCC) has led to the loss of biodiversity , which lowers ecosystems' resilience to environmental stresses and decreases their ability to remove carbon from the atmosphere. More directly, it often leads to the release of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere. Deforestation for agricultural purposes removes forests, which hold large amounts of carbon, and replaces them, generally with agricultural or urban areas. Both of these replacement land cover types store comparatively small amounts of carbon, so that the net product of the process is that more carbon stays in the atmosphere.